Cauliflower is one of the most useful vegetables. The amount of the contained vitamins and minerals she is superior to cabbage. However, cauliflower is very delicate vegetable. To grow it and get the long awaited harvest, will have to put a lot of effort.
How to find the right approach to demanding vegetable? This is what will be discussed in this article.
Cultivation of cauliflower
An important point in the cultivation of cauliflower is the choice of a suitable site for planting. The soil should be as rich in minerals and microelements, especially boron. When the lack of heads of cabbage will rot, and the inside will be void. Soil moisture should be moderate. When there is insufficient moisture or waterlogging the growth of cauliflower slows down. The optimum temperature for growing vegetable is the temperature of 15-19°C.
For cauliflower are the best predecessors tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, onions. Not recommended to grow capricious vegetable in the beds after turnip, radish, radish. To plant cauliflower at the same place only after 3-4 years.
Preparation of seed
It is best to grow vegetable seedling method. Thus it is possible to harvest throughout the summer.
Before sowing the seeds for seedlings should be soaked for several hours in wet gauze. It is recommended to sow them at least three times per season, depending on the varieties of cabbage:
- Sowing of early varieties is 5-30 March, seedlings in the open ground transplanted in the period from 25 April to 15 may.
- For medium cauliflower the period of the sowing of the seed from 10 April to 15 may, transplanting from 20 may to 15 June.
- The period of sowing of late varieties starts may 25 and ends June 10. Planting seedlings — in early July.
Stores offer a huge range of cauliflower seeds. Gardeners often wonder what sort of select to get a good harvest? To see the varieties and to study categories of cauliflower at the link — https://semena.cc/ru/394-Kapusty-tsvetnoi-semena
The most common and popular varieties are:
- Shelf life — the variety is resistant to weather changes, the head is quite dense, with 1 square. m you can collect up to 3 kg of the crop;
- Baldo — cabbage snow-white in colour, has velvety leaves, a diameter of 15-20 cm, weight up to 2 kg, has a great taste, variety tolerates extreme heat;
- Snowball 123 — middle-early variety, resistant to cold and most diseases, has an excellent flavor, harvest is well preserved during prolonged storage periods;
- Bora — sowing period from February to April, the seedlings are ready for planting after 30-35 days, the heads have good density.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Before transplanting the seedlings to the open garden the soil must be enriched with humus. Recommended hole size of 60×40 cm at a distance of 10-20 cm. To each well add a little ash. The soil before planting should be watered with warm water.
Cauliflower — this heat – and moisture-loving plant. After transplantation of the seedlings the soil should be mulched. For this fit, sawdust, compost, grass cuttings. Mulch will retain soil moisture, which are so necessary for the cabbage. In the period of cooling, the seedlings should be covered with a film. Thus, the plants will be warm.
Cauliflower does not like drought, so it is recommended to carefully monitor the watering of plants. The lack of moisture cabbage can bloom and harvest. But overdo it with the amount of water is also not worth it: the soil should not be damp and humid. Irrigation cabbage should be at the root, not to touch the top, on which is formed the ovaries.
Cauliflower does not like windy places, so it’s best to grow it around the fence or near the house wall.
In one season cauliflower should be fertilized three times.
The first fertilizing is carried out with organic fertilizers (mullein) 10 days after transplanting seedlings into open ground. After two weeks in the soil make phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. The third feeding is carried out before the formation of the heads. The soil is enriched with boron, molybdenum and potassium sulfate.
Nitrogen fertilizers can be applied either in the first fertilizer is organic or second. If you overdo it with the amount of nitrogen, instead of the head will grow cabbage leaves. Nitrogen top-dressing are optional, so without them it is possible to do.
Protection from pests and diseases
In the process of growing vegetables must be protected from various pests and various diseases. Threat to cauliflower are flies, slugs and butterflies. Parasites such as the cabbage fly, moth, Bessie and cutworms can destroy all the plants.
In order to protect from pests is necessary every two weeks to spray plantations with vegetable mixtures containing wood ash, the tops of tomatoes and tobacco dust. In that case, if the sprouts appeared caterpillars, you need to gather them manually, then treat the plant.
Diseases that affect cauliflower, destroy the crown and root vegetable. The main cause of the disease is the improper care of a cabbage and also unforeseen weather conditions (frequent rains, a sharp decrease in air temperature).
In the fight against fungal diseases of the effective method is spraying the plants with a special preparation “fitosporin”. From attack by cabbage caterpillars, you can use the drug “Enterobactin”, as well as infusion of the leaves of burdock. For its preparation you need to pour ⅓ of the bucket with the leaves of burdock with water and leave to infuse for a day.
The best plant protection is the prevention of diseases. Observing all the rules and requirements for care, you can avoid combat unwanted diseases and to grow healthy vegetables.
Harvest and storage
To harvest cauliflower need as they Mature but prior to flowering of the vegetable. In order to protect the head from damage, it is recommended to cut with the subordinate leaves.
Late varieties of cabbage do not always have time to ripen before the cold weather. Their maturation can be accelerated way of growing. It is necessary to dig the cabbage together with the surrounding land and transfer it to the greenhouse or cellar. To place the plants need to tightly to each other, doomed them to moisten. Additional lighting is not required. As a cold snap, plants mulched with sawdust. So after 1.5−2 months you can collect the Mature heads of cabbage.
To store the harvest of cauliflower recommended covered with polyethylene boxes. Room temperature storage should be between 0 °C and have high humidity (90%).
Despite the demands and moodiness in the cultivation and care, the cauliflower is a very valuable vegetable. It contains a huge amount of nutrients not found in green cabbage. If you properly care for plants and follow all the above tips, it is possible to grow and harvest a decent crop of cauliflower!